Symptoms related to acute HIV infection (when a person is first infected) can be similar to the flu or other viral illnesses. They include:
- Fever and muscle pains
- Sore throat
- Night sweats
- Mouth sores, including yeast infection (thrush)
- Swollen lymph glands
Many people have no symptoms when they are first infected with HIV.
Acute HIV infection progresses over a few weeks to months to become an asymptomatic HIV infection (no symptoms). This stage can last 10 years or longer. During this period, the person might have no reason to suspect they have HIV, but they can spread the virus to others.
If they are not treated, almost all people infected with HIV will develop AIDS. Some people develop AIDS within a few years of infection. Others remain completely healthy after 10 or even 20 years.
People with AIDS have had their immune system damaged by HIV. They are at very high risk of getting infections that are uncommon in people with a healthy immune system. These infections are called opportunistic infections. These can be caused by bacteria, viruses, fungi, or protozoa, and can affect any part of the body. People with AIDS are also at higher risk for certain cancers, especially lymphomas and a skin cancer called Kaposi sarcoma.
Symptoms depend on the particular infection and which part of the body is infected. Lung infections are common in AIDS and usually cause cough, fever, and shortness of breath. Intestinal infections are also common and can cause diarrhea, abdominal pain, vomiting, or swallowing problems. Weight loss, fever, sweats, rashes, and swollen lymph glands are common in people with HIV infection and AIDS.