Anal Cancer – Surgical options range from local excision to abdominoperineal resection and groin dissection.
Colorectal Cancer – Surgical options include cryosurgery, local excision, radiofrequency ablation, resection or resection and colostomy.
Esophagus Cancer – Surgical options range from local excision to complete abdominoperineal resection.
Bile Duct Cancer – If the disease is caught early, surgeons can remove the bile duct and nearby lymph nodes. Other options include a partial hepatectomy, the whipple procedure, surgical biliary bypass or the placement of a stent.
GI Carcinoid Tumors – Surgical options depend on where and how severe gastrointestinal tumors are. The options can include fulguration, artery ligation or embolization, radiofrequency ablation, appendectomy, partial hepatectomy or bowel resection and anastomosis.
Liver Cancer – Treatment options for liver cancer include chemoembolization, a percutaneous ethanol injection, regional chemotherapy, radiofrequency ablation, partial or total hepatectomy with liver transplant.
Pancreatic Cancer – Surgical options include surgical bypass, distal or total pancreatectomy, or the placement of a stent.
Small Intestine Cancer – Surgical options include surgical bypass or resection of the small intestine.
Stomach Cancer – Surgery may include subtotal or total gastroectomy, endoluminal stent placement or electrocautery.
Abdominoperineal resection – A procedure in which the anus, the rectum and part of the sigmoid colon are removed through an incision made in the abdomen. The doctor sews the end of the intestine to an opening made in the surface of the abdomen so body waste can be collected in a disposable colostomy bag outside of the body.
Appendectomy – Your appendix is removed, sometimes laparascopically, using small incisions.
Bile duct removal – If the cancer is found at a very early stage, surgeons can remove the tumor, bile duct and nearby lymph nodes. Then they reconstruct a new duct by sewing a piece of intestine to the liver.
Bowel resection and anastomosis – The bowel tumor is removed, along with a small section of healthy bowel surrounding it. The healthy parts of the bowel are then sewn together. Lymph nodes are removed and checked for cancer.
Chemoembolization – An anti-cancer drug is injected into the hepatic artery through a thin tube called a catheter.
Cryosurgery – A treatment that uses an instrument to freeze and destroy abnormal tissue.
Electrocautery – An electrical current that creates heat used to remove lesions or control bleeding.
Endoluminal stent placement – A procedure to insert a thin, expandable tube called a stent to keep a passage open for nutrition.
Fulguration – Use of a special tool that employs an electric current to burn away the tumor.
Gastrectomy (subtotal) – Removal of the part of the stomach that contains cancer, nearby lymph nodes, parts of other tissues and organs near the tumor. The spleen may also be removed.
Gastrectomy (total) – Removal of the entire stomach, nearby lymph nodes, parts of the esophagus, small intestines and other tissues near the tumor. The spleen may also be removed.
Groin dissection – If after chemotherapy or radiation, cancer is found in the lymph nodes of the groins, the cancerous lymph nodes are surgically removed.
Hepatectomy (partial) – If the tumor has spread to the liver, surgeons can remove the involved part of the liver, the bile duct and lymph nodes near the tumor. Then they reconstruct a new duct by sewing a piece of intestine to the liver.
Hepatectomy and liver transplant – Removal of the entire liver and replacement with a healthy donated liver.
Hepatic artery ligation or embolization – A procedure which blocks off the main blood vessel that brings blood into the liver. Blocking the flow of blood to the liver helps kill the cancer cells growing there.
Hepatic resection – The surgical oncologist removes part or all of the liver.
Local excision – If the cancer is found at a very early stage, it can be removed without cutting into the abdomen.
Pancreatectomy (distal) – The surgical oncologist removes the pancreas’s body and tail if the tumor is in either of these parts, as well as the spleen.
Pancreatectomy (total) – The surgical oncologist removes the entire pancreas, the gall bladder, the spleen, the common bile duct and parts of the stomach and small intestine.
Percutaneous ethanol injection – A small needle is used to inject ethanol (alcohol) directly into a tumor to kill cancer cells.
Radiofrequency ablation (cryotherapy) – The use of a special probe with tiny electrodes that kill cancer cells.
Regional chemotherapy – A small pump may be placed in the body to deliver anti-cancer drugs directly into the blood vessels that go to the tumor.
Resection – Surgically removing the cancer and a small amount of healthy tissue around it.
Resection and colostomy – If the doctor is not able to sew the colon or rectum back together, a stoma (an opening) is made on the outside of the body for waste to pass through. A colostomy bag is placed around the stoma to collect the waste.
Stent placement – A thin tube called a stent may be placed in the duct to drain bile that has built up in the area.
Surgical bypass – When a tumor cannot be removed, surgeons can create a new pathway around the blocked area to let fluids pass through the digestive tract.
Whipple procedure – Surgeons remove the bile duct, the head of the pancreas, the gallbladder, and parts of the small intestine and stomach, then reconstruct the digestive system to allow you to eat a regular diet.
Chemotherapy involves using drugs that slow down, damage or kill cancer cells. This may involve single drugs or combinations of drugs taken intravenously or by mouth. Chemotherapy is often taken in cycles lasting three or four weeks. Your team may also prescribe drugs and other treatments to reduce or eliminate side effects associated with chemotherapy.
Radiation Therapy ("Radiotherapy") involves using X-rays and other types of medical radiation aimed at specific parts of the body. Radiation is used to kill cancer cells, prevent them from developing or recurring, and ease many of the symptoms caused by cancer. It can be used together with chemotherapy for certain cancers (this is called “chemo-radiotherapy”).
Targeted Therapies are anti-cancer drugs or other substances that directly interfere with cancer growth and progression on a molecular level. They may be taken (with few side effects) on their own or in combination with standard chemotherapy. Many new targeted therapies, including vaccines and gene therapies, are currently in development.
Hormone Therapy. Some hormones can cause certain cancers to grow. Hormone therapy removes hormones, or blocks their action and stops cancer cells from growing. If tests show that the cancer cells have places where hormones can attach (receptors), drugs, surgery, or radiation therapy are used to reduce the production of hormones or block them from working.
MIBG (metaiodobenzylguanidine) is a drug therapy that is sometimes used with or without radioactive iodine to lessen symptoms of gastrointestinal carcinoid tumors.